What is the Best Air Filter for My Home? | Direct Energy Blog

What is the Best Air Filter for My Home?

No question is more likely to stir up a hornet’s nest of debate (if not brawl) among heating, cooling, and air conditioner (HVAC) professionals than “Which air filter should I use for my home?”

Opinions vary so widely because over the years technicians have seen everything that the wrong kind of air filter can do to a home’s HVAC system: from coils, motors, and blowers too clogged by weak filters to burnt-out motors and controls because of too-restrictive filters. HVAC air filters are important for removing contaminants from the air to improve your home’s air quality. The better the air quality, the better your HVAC system runs and the better your family’s health.

Air filters are rated according to their Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value (MERV). Created by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), it’s a porousness scale that goes from 1 to 16, with most home air filters ranging from 4 to 13 MERV. The higher the MERV, the more contaminants that are removed from the air.

Here’s MERV!


What is the Best Air Filter for My Home? [Infographic] | Direct Energy Blog

Air filters are made from different materials in different thicknesses and sizes. These factors effect their MERV.

  1. Spun fiberglass filters (MERV 1-4): Cheap and disposable, these filters will catch 80% of particles 50 microns and larger, and snag 25 percent of the particles in the 3 to 10 micron range. Many manufacturers recommend these filters as minimum protection just from dust and dirt building on fan motors, heat exchangers, and other surfaces. They filter out large particles to protect the furnace components, provide maximum airflow but don’t filter the tiny harmful contaminants that affect your health.
  2. Disposable pleated paper or polyester filters (5 to 8 MERV ): These median-sized filters trap 80 to 95 percent of the particles 5 microns and larger. They cost four times more than the spun fiberglass filters but do a better filtering job.
  3. Electrostatic filters (2 to 10 MERV): These use self-charging fibers to attract particulates out of the air. Disposable pleated versions run about $10 in standard sizes (example: 16″ x 25″ x 1″). Washable versions (rated 4 to 10 MERV, usually not pleated) sound like a great way to save money but quality varies with cost. Better quality ones can last up to 8 years. These filters must dry completely after washing in order to avoid mildew or mold growth so a handy trick is to buy two and rotate them out for cleaning.
  4. Disposable pleated high MERV filters (11 to 13 MERV): High-efficiency filters can trap 0.3 micron particles like bacteria and some viruses. Two to five inch thick versions of these filters fit in box-like housings mounted onto the air handler and can last up to one year. Periodic changes to the filter design can add to the price.
  5. High-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filters: These are the true high end of filtration and are  able to filter out 0.3 micron particles. HEPA filters drastically restrict airflow and should only be matched to a compatible system.

Unfortunately, one of the biggest selling filter products, 3M’s Filtrete, do NOT use MERV, preferring its “Microparticle Performance Rating” (MPR) instead. Fortunately, there is a place to compare the numbers. Be aware, too, that some retailers also use their own rating system instead of MERV.

Old Resistance, New Developments

What is the Best Air Filter for My Home? | Direct Energy Blog

A decade ago, it used to be that if you had an HVAC system that used panel filters rated 6 through 9 MERV, putting in a MERV 11 or higher filter would restrict airflow (known as filter pressure drop). In turn, this would lengthen the system’s run-time, adding to your heating and cooling costs.

This assumption is not entirely the case anymore. Newer pleated filtering media increases the filter’s surface area so that while the filter might be finer, there’s more area for air to pass through. The more pleats per foot, the better. The thicker the filter, the more surface area per pleat.

So, while the filter pressure drop issue still has some impact, a 2009 Home Energy experimental test concluded that “…if no accommodations are made for the greater pressure drop of high-MERV filters, air flow and energy penalties are not likely to be severe — at least, not until the filter is loaded with dirt.”

Some General Considerations

What is the Best Air Filter for My Home? | Direct Energy Blog

If you are renting and do not have allergy problems or pets or live in an area with excessive dust, then buying cheap spun fiberglass filters with a cardboard frame every three months should work out fine. They’re not a good investment if you own your home because these filters are flimsy and prone to leak dust into the HVAC system. That dust can build up on coiling coils and motors and threaten to cost more over time in repairs than you might save from using cheaper filters.

If you are going to invest in washable filters, then expect to pay more than $20 each for a 8 MERV filter. Cheaper washable ones will have loose filter media, especially after washing, and thus will perform poorly there after (caveat emptor). Keep in mind that disposable filters are more hygienic because all the dirt gets removed from your home when you toss out the filter.

Higher MERV pleated filters do a much better job now that in the past. While the key to better filtration vs pressure drop lies in getting the most pleating per foot, it’s safe to say that newer filter designs have less air flow issues at higher MERV. More important, they are more effective than the median-grade pleated filters at improving indoor air quality (and potentially better health) for you and your family.

All the same, you still need to replace them every three months so price is a concern. For a standard sized 16″x25″x1″ 11 MERV filter, expect to pay $5 or more per filter but you can save a little when you buy them in packs of 12. Antimicrobial or electrostatic treatments also add to the filter’s cost. Some top brands within this general size range are Filtrete, Purolator, and Nordic Pure.

Replacements for thicker (two to five inches) pleated 11+ MERV filters that require compatible framing to the air handler (see photo) and should follow the manufacturer’s recommendation because a thinner, cheaper filter won’t fit properly and so won’t work. While these filters are expensive – $45-$100 – they last a full year and work very well


When it comes to air filters, all systems, homes, and air quality needs are going to be different. Ask yourself if the current type of filter you’re using is doing what you need it to do: filter dust and irritants from the air to protect your HVAC system and your family’s health. If it isn’t, read through the HVAC manufacturer’s filter recommendations. Many are available through their customer support websites. Remember that while cost is an important factor to consider, you’ll save far more money in the long run by maintaining good air quality in your home with good air filters.

Save energy and money by signing up for an electricity plan with Direct Energy. You’ll get the tools you need to track your energy usage and help you make sure your HVAC system is using energy efficiently.

17 thoughts on “What is the Best Air Filter for My Home?

  1. I have a new 3.5 ton ac unit that requires a 5″ filter. Yikes! They’re expensive! Wouldn’t be so bad if it lasted 6 months like dealer told me. Problem is, it only lasts 30 days. Its then black with crud. It causes unit to leak water in house because of blocked air flow. What’s my problem? Why is filter so dirty so fast? The drain pipe is free of any grime. Could the ducts have a leak and is drawing dirt from the attic? I have 3 dogs. Live in florida. Non smoker. Frustrated.

    1. Good morning, Allie,

      I would recommend you contact the professionals at http://www.onehourheatandair.com/ for advice on your unit, the right filter for you, and what could be going wrong. Or, as the original article stated, “Read through the HVAC manufacturer’s filter recommendations. Many are available through their customer support websites. ” Unfortunately, without looking directly at your unit and the accompanying ductwork in your home, I’m reluctant to provide specific advice in the comments section.

      1. Good morning,

        I wouldn’t recommend installing a cheap filter just to “take out the bigger crud.” It’s often the accumulation of the smaller particulate matter that can cause long-term damage to your HVAC system. As I suggested to Allie, I encourage a combination of following the recommendations of the manufacturer of your HVAC system and contacting http://www.onehourheatandair.com/ for further advice and to schedule a checkup on your HVAC unit.

    2. Make sure that the black in your filter is not mold I would have a checked. You said it was causing the condensation to pool under your house.

  2. how can i figure out the proper thickness of my filter? at the moment its 1″ thick but thats cause previous owner had that. when i insert these filters and run the hvac filter actually comes off from the frame where it sits and the air i am sure leaks from the surrounding areas. what do you think?

    1. If you are having trouble with your current air filter, you should check with the company that manufactured your HVAC unit and follow their recommendations for the correct HVAC filter. You could also call http://www.onehourheatandair.com/ to schedule a checkup for your HVAC unit to see if there are other issues you need to address.

  3. The best way to find the air filter for your home is to firstly measure the size of the area where you want to put air filters, after that simply search over the internet about best “air filters providers” and there you will get the details of a number of companies that provide the information about air filters. Now, compare the product with by calculating the price, size and customer reviews.

  4. Air flow specialist with NCI, National Comfort Institute, one of 5,000 nationwide. HVAC systems are not designed to be air purification filters. The restrictive filters shorten the life of your system, cost more to run, are less efficient and can cause icing conditions. The cheap spun fiberglass filters allow your system to breathe, much like keeping your lint trap on your dryer clean allows your dryer to do its job. You pretty much just want to keep golf balls from getting in to your indoor blower motor. Hubby is a 32 yr master technician.

    1. The main concern is the “A” coil with hundreds of thin aluminum fins. It acts like a filter. It will collect dust and become less effective at removing heat from your home. Which could lead to your coil freezing up or your system will run much longer costing more to operate. You are not wrong about the golf balls, technaiclly that could also happen. Anything that could happen, will!

  5. I live in Florida. With the cold spell we’re experiencing this January, I have had to turn on the heating. I have been using Filtrete 1085D filters which are approximately a MERV 11 (I believe). The HVAC is a Carrier, new, installed in 2015. When it was installed, I had the ducts checked for leaks and repaired. I also had them cleaned, and I have no drafts coming in from the outside. All windows and doors well-sealed, and the attic is adequately insulated. I have noticed that the heat is ok in the kitchen, living and dining, and the small bedroom. However, the large bedroom and the two bathrooms are not receiving adequate heat. Could someone please help me understand what is going on and how this issue may be resolved? Thank you.

    1. That due to duct work especially in houses built with out central air or with builders cutting corners which sadly is not uncommon and add to that there a lot of competition in the AC business that has some some unethical installers low-ball the install price to get the job

  6. I live in Indiana, and it has been in the single digits. This is the first winter in my new home. My heat worked fine until it got colder. Then I started having issues with it shutting down. The furnace is 10 years old, but a furnace life should be 16-20 years. Granted the previous owner did not maintain it as she should have, still it should not be time to replace it. I had a tech come out and look at it. He to stop using 3M pleated filters. He told me they are way too restrictive, which can cause excessive heat. Which will turn off the burners. I replaced the filter when I first had an issue. A week later, and it’s shutting down again. I replaced the filter again, and now its running fine. I have done a lot of research, and I have read a lot of the same about 3M pleated filters. I’m going to switch filters, and have my furnace serviced.

  7. What’s a better inline filter, a safeguard filter or clean effect electronic filter. The safeguard (according to installer) needs to be replaced yearly, while the electronic just has to be washed out monthly. The safeguard is cheaper at 350 and the electronic runs 700-1500 (depending on installer).

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